Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961)
In his work on the relationship between the conscious and unconscious, Jung describes the unconscious as archetypal images. Jung talks about archetypes as patterns of behavior, innate tendencies that mold human conduct.
Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people rely too heavily on science and logic and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms.
“The more one sees of human fate and the more one examines its secret springs of action, the more one is impressed by the strength of unconscious motives and by the limitations of free choice.” C G Jung
“Everything in the unconscious seeks outward manifestation, and the personality too desires to evolve out of its unconscious conditions and to experience itself as a whole.” C G Jung
Plato (428?–348? BC)
It is considered that Plato is one of the greatest philosophers of all time and archetypes are attributed to him through his ‘Theory of Forms”.
His theory of forms was born out of two problems posed as questions. 1. The Ethical Problem. How can humans live a fulfilling, happy life in a contingent, changing world where everything they attach themselves to can be taken away? 2. The problem of Permanence and Change. How can the world appear to be both permanent and changing?
In postulating a solution, Plato split existence into two realms: the material realm and the transcendent realm of forms. A material object may be described by form, for aesthetics, shape, colour etc. Each of these forms are transcendent of the object, am example being a tyre of a car. A tyre can be described as round, black and rubbery and it is these forms that are describing the material object.